All the students should know about what is hydrosphere. A hydrosphere is an intermittent layer of water on or near the Earth’s surface. The question of what is hydrosphere comes up a lot of times in examinations. This includes all liquid and frozen surface water, groundwater contained in soils and rocks, and atmospheric water vapor. About 1.4 billion cubic kilometers (326 million cubic miles) of liquid and frozen water is made up of oceans, lakes, streams, glaciers and the groundwater found there. It is these tremendous quantities of water in varied forms that constitute the discontinuous layer that covers most of the Earth’s surface, known as the hydrosphere. Central to the discussion of the hydrosphere is the concept of the water cycle (or hydrologic cycle). This cycle consists of a group of reservoirs containing water, the process by which water moves from one reservoir to another (or transformation from one state to another), and the transfer rates associated with these processes. These transmission paths permeate the whole hydrosphere and expand about 15 km upwards in the Earth’s environment and to a depth of about 5 km (3 miles) in the Earth’s crust. Water trapped in the voids of seawater and sediments makes up much of the modern hydrosphere. The total mass of water in the ocean is about 50% of the mass of sedimentary rocks present today and about 5% of the total mass of the crust. Deep and shallow groundwater accounts for a small percentage of the total amount of water trapped in the pores of sedimentary rocks.
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