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TOME stands for Thought Ordered Mental Expression and is also referred to as the language of thought hypothesis (LOTH). TOME is a view in the philosophy of mind, cognitive science, and linguistics that was put forth by American philosopher Jerry Fodor. It describes the nature of thought as having a language-like or compositional structure.

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It is also sometimes known as mentalese. From this perspective, simple concepts combine in systematic ways, similar to the rules of grammar in the realm of language, to construct thoughts. In its basic form, the theory essentially states that thought, just like language, has syntax. By making use of empirical evidence taken from cognitive science and linguistics to describe mental representation from the vantage point of philosophy, TOME states that thinking takes place in a language of thought (LOT). By extension, it means that cognition and cognitive processes can only be remotely plausible when expressed in the form of a system of representations that are tokened by a linguistic or semantic structure and worked on by means of a combinatorial syntax. Linguistics tokens made use of mental language to describe elementary concepts that are operated upon by logical rules that establish causal connections. This allows for complex thought. Syntax, as well as semantics, have a causal effect on the properties of the system of mental representations mentioned here.

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