Titration, which is also known as titrimetry or volumetric analysis, is a common method of quantitative chemical analysis used in the laboratory to determine the concentration of an identified analyte. A reagent, referred to as the titrant or titrator, is prepared as a standard solution of the volume and concentration. The titrant reacts with a solution of the analyte to find the concentration of the analyte. The volume of titrant that reacted with the analyte is known as the titration volume.
A typical titration starts with a beaker or Erlenmeyer flask that contains a very precise amount of the analyte as well as a small amount of indicator like phenolphthalein placed underneath a pipetting syringe or calibrated burette containing the titrant. Small volumes of the titrant are then added to the analyte and indicator mixture until the indicator changes color as a result of reacting to the titrant saturation threshold. This marks the arrival at the endpoint of the titration, which means that the amount of titrant balances the amount of analyte present, according to the reaction between the two. On the basis of the endpoint desired, single drops or less than a single drop of the titrant can bring about the difference between a permanent and temporary change in the indicator.
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