Special education is oriented to meet the needs of differently-abled students. It provides specialized instructions to students who are identified with a disability; this helps meet their unique learning needs and give them opportunities to develop to their full potential.
Special education is all about individualization, as the service or support received by one child may be different from what another child receives. It is a range of services provided in different ways with different settings. The support services include therapy, physical assistance, modified learning environments, psychotherapy and counseling, psychological assessments, and behavioral modification techniques.
Special education is regulated by a federal law, known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. A student must have a documented disability covered by IDEA to qualify for special instruction. There are 13 types of disabilities covered by this. i.e., emotional disturbance or mental health problems, hearing impairment, intellectual disability, multiple disabilities, specific learning disability like dyslexia, autism, deafness, traumatic brain surgery, speech or language impairments, orthopaedic impairment, and other health impairments. For e.g., students with dyslexia may spend most of the time in a general classroom, and spend two or three hours with their specialist in a resource room; whereas another student with dyslexia might have different needs, who need more support than the other one.
Special education is delivered free in the United States through the public education system. School districts have a particular process that determines the eligibility of students for special education. It helps these students reach a level of self-sufficiency and success.
Special education has an individualised plan of instructions, which ensures that students with disabilities are provided with an effective course of education. It is all about making the curriculum accessible to students with disabilities in an efficient way. It is, hence, a purposeful invention designed to eliminate the obstacles that keep children with disabilities away from learning.