A scholar is a person who follows intellectual activities and also has the academic achievement. They usually develop their expertise in one area of study. The scholar can also work as a teacher, professor, researcher at any university, or any other institution providing higher education. These people have terminal or advanced degrees like a Ph.D. They work independently, outside of academia.
Even if the scholars are unaffiliated with a university, they participate in conferences and academic journals. These scholars have high social standing as they work for the betterment of society. They spend years on research and spend time in understanding their area of interest.
There are some independent scholars. They do their scholarly research outside the university. In many countries, there are professional associations for independent scholars. You need to take membership in these associations to meet a post-secondary education degree and do research. These independent scholars are known as unaffiliated scholars in any academic conference.
Independent scholars can work as a part-time teacher, speaker, or consultant. There is difficulty in searching for a job for independent scholars. To go to any library also, these independent scholars need to take permission from a university.
The other words for scholars are scientist, teacher, intellectual, professor, sage, etc.