PNS Full Form
PNS Full Form is Post-Normal Science. Post-normal science represents a rather new approach for the use of science on issues where facts cannot be deemed uncertain, values are in dispute, stakes high, and decisions urgent. PNS was developed during the 1990s by Jerome R. Ravetz and Silvio Funtowicz. It can be considered as a reaction to the styles of analysis on the basis of the risk and cost-benefit analysis that were there at that time. PNS was an embodiment of concepts of a new critical science that developed in previous works by the same two authors. In a more recent work, PNS was described as the stage where science is at today, where all the comfortable assumptions about science, its use and production are all in question.
According to the proponents of this theory, Jerome R. Ravetz, and Silvio Funtowicz, the name echoes the seminal work on modern science by Thomas Kuhn. It was framed in terms of a call for the democratization of expertise and as a “reaction against long-term trends of scientization of politics, which essentially means the tendency towards assigning experts a critical role in policymaking while marginalizing lay people.
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