Ontology meaning the study of existence and reality is a very interesting branch of philosophy. It questions how certain entities are grouped together into basic categories and which of these entities exist on the most fundamental level, which are known as simples.
Ontologists are the people who study this branch of philosophy and they try to determine what the categories or highest kinds are as well as how they form a system of categories that provides an all-round classification of all entities. Commonly proposed categories of these include relations, states of affairs, substances, properties, and events. These categories can be characterized by fundamental ontological concepts, such as particularity and universality, possibility and necessity, and abstractness and concreteness. The concept of ontological dependence is of great importance to ontologists because it determines whether the entities of a category can exist on the most fundamental simple level. Disagreements within the field of ontology are often about whether entities belonging to a certain category exist and, if they do, how they are related to other entities.
There are various types of ontological theories developed on the basis of their theoretical commitments. Monocategorical ontologies are based off of the notion that there is only one basic category. However, this is rejected by poly-categorical ontologists, who believe in the opposite. Hierarchical ontologies are based on the assumption that certain entities exist on a more fundamental level while other entities depend on them. On the other hand, flat ontologies deny such a privileged status to any entity. Ontology is considered to belong to the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics.
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