Number theory, also known as arithmetic, is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of the integers and integer-valued functions. This concept is highly valued by every mathematician. The significance of number theory is evident through the statement given by German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. He mentioned, ‘Mathematics is the queen of the sciences and number theory is the queen of mathematics.’ The concept of integers is used in various mathematical modeling and numbers. Number theorists give special importance to the concept of prime numbers as well as other properties of mathematical objects. Earlier, the concept of number theory was denoted as arithmetic. However, the terminology was changed and the new term given to arithmetic was number theory.
Students should prepare well for this section of mathematics as most questions are asked from this chapter. The earliest historical finding of an arithmetic nature was given in the form of a table. Moreover, contemporary work in this field also mentions the topic of this theory. The topic has always been a subject of interest for mathematicians. Moreover, this theory is also an interesting topic for students and laypeople. As compared to other mathematical topics, the theories and concepts of this topic are more understandable. Until the mid-20th century, this topic was considered the purest form of mathematics. Moreover, the concept did not had a direct application to the real-world problems. But later, mathematicians made this concept applicable to other dimensions of the world. Now, the concept is subdivided into various headings.