Language acquisition is the ability to learn, perceive and comprehend a language and also use it to communicate with others. The language acquisition of the first language happens in the early years of our life. It occurs unconsciously because of our exposure to the language. As infants, when we get exposed to a language, we tend to imitate what others are speaking.
Language proficiency for young learners of their first language progresses in phases, from babbling to one word to two words to telegraphic speech. Because infants start to make noises in response to their surroundings. Babbling is considered the first form of language acquisition. After this stage, kids tend to speak using monosyllables and the people around them start responding and start correcting them. It happens at a faster pace.
Second language acquisition is the learning of any other language than our mother tongue. It generally happens in a later stage of our lives and it generally will be a slow process when compared to the first. Unlike, the first language acquisition, the learners will have to put effort to learn a new language as our exposure to this can be relatively low. In this case, the learner has to understand the language from the basics and learn every aspect of it to successfully formulate and understand it in an intelligible manner.
It takes a high level of expertise, including phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and a large vocabulary, to be able to utilize language effectively.
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