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Instructional Theory

Instructional Theory refers to the theory that offers crystal clear guidance about helping people learn and develop in a better way. The theory identifies clearly ideal instructions and teaching methods. The teaching strategies are formed in a way that the educator can quickly adopt the learning objectives. 

Instructional Theories help in indicating approaches to the instructor for evaluation. It provides valuable insights regarding teaching and learning activities about why and what likely is to happen.

To facilitate the learners’ best learning, the instructor focuses on making the best structure material and behaviour. The instructional theory originated in the United States in the late 1970s. It is influenced by three fundamental theories: behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. 

Robert Gagne, one of the first instructional theorists, published Conditions of Learning for the Florida State University’s Department of Educational Research.

The Instructional Theory is adapted based on the learning styles and the educational content of the students. These theories are then used as the instructors’ teaching guidelines to provide the best learning and knowledge to the students.

The instructional theory comprises different methods, models, and strategies. The instructional theory is divided into four parts:

1. Design Oriented: It provides direct guidance for practitioners. The learning becomes purely goal-oriented. And it is prescriptive.

2. Methods of Instruction: These are known as the methods of learning facilitation. These methods depend on situations like 

  1. What is to be learned? 
  2. Learner 
  3. Learning Environments and
  4. Instructional Development Constraints

3. Component Methods: The component methods focus on the parts of the general process, the kinds of the general practice, and the criteria that the general approach should meet.

4. Probabilistic: The primary purpose is to increase the chance of the desired learning outcome. The instructional methods are probabilistic rather than deterministic.

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