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The word infer means to carry forward. Inference is the process of deriving conclusions through the process of reasoning. It is theoretically traditionally divided into deduction and induction, a distinction. Deduction is derived from logical conclusions from known premises or assumed to be true. The laws of valid inference are studied in logic. Induction is from a particular source of evidence to a universal conclusion. The third kind is also distinguished, bringing a demarcation between abduction and induction.

There are several fields that how it is done in practice. Human inference, which refers to how humans draw conclusions, is generally studied within the fields of logic, argumentation studies, and cognitive psychology. There are also artificial intelligence researchers developing automated inference systems to emulate human inference. Inferential statistics made use of mathematics to draw conclusions when faced with uncertainty. This generalizes deterministic reasoning with the absence of uncertainty considered a special case. Statistical inference makes use of quantitative or qualitative data which may be subject to random variations.

The application for this in today’s world is the use and proliferation of AI systems. They offer provided automated logical inference and these were once extremely popular research topics, leading to industrial applications under the form of expert systems and later business rule engines. 

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