Experimental research is a study strictly adhering to a scientific research design. It will have a hypothesis, a variable that can be changed by the researcher, and variables that are measurable, calculable, and comparable. Above all, experimental research is conducted in a controlled environment. The researcher collects all the necessary data and conducts the research, the results of which will either support or reject the hypothesis. This method of research is referred to as hypothesis testing or deductive research. Experimental research determines a relationship between two variables:
- The dependent variable, and
- The independent variable
After completing an experimental research study, a correlation is made which is either supported or rejected by a specific aspect of an entity and the variable being studied.
Data in this type of research needs to be able to be measured or quantified. Examples of data collected in this regard could be
- Electrical current/potential/resistance
- Growth (time, weight, volume, length/width)
- Light intensity
- Sound intensity
- Weight, and so on.
All experimental studies look to determine how one thing affects another. However, the entity must be carefully observed on a qualitative basis, described using photographs or words – how the entity looks, smells, sounds, feels, tastes, and so on. These types of observations can help supplement the measurements taken all through the experiment.
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