Design of Experiments

Design of experiments, referred to as DOE, is the systematic approach to determining the relationship between a process and the outcome of that process. In simpler words, it is used to find the relationship between the cause and effect of a particular event.  This information is necessary to manage process inputs for optimizing the output.

An understanding of the Design of Experiments requires knowledge of certain \\ tools and experimentation concepts. Even though a DOE can be analyzed in several different software programs, it is vital for practitioners to understand some basic concepts of DOE for proper application.

The most commonly used terms in the methodology of DOE include

  • Controllable input factors – These are the factors that can be modified in the course of the experiment. For example, when doing an experiment like an acid-base reaction, the amount of acid and base that need to be added comes under this bracket.
  • Uncontrollable input factors – These are the factors that cannot be modified in an experiment. For example, in the same example, the temperature of the room is what can be considered the uncontrollable input factor.
  • Responses – These are the desired outcome of the experiment. For example, the formation of salt and heat in the example experiment is the response.
  • Hypothesis testing – It is exactly what it sounds like, testing a hypothesis. The outcome of hypothesis testing will be null if the status quo is true and alternative if the status quo is false.
  • Blocking & Replication – Blocking is a technique that avoids errors in an experiment. For example, when trying to do an experiment, blocking would mean  using the same equipment
  • Interaction – Interaction is when an experiment of more than 2 variables is not additive even though there is a simultaneous influence of two variables.

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