A binary number is a number that can be expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system. It is a method of mathematical expression that uses only two symbols: typically zero and one. The base-2 numeral system can be defined as a positional notation with a radix of 2. Each digit is known as a bit or binary digit. Since its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry is using logic gates, the binary system is made use of by almost all modern computers and computer-based devices. It is a preferred system of use, over several other human techniques of communication, of the simplicity of the language and the noise immunity in physical implementation.

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Binary counting follows the exact same procedure as decimal counting, and once again the incremental substitution begins with the least significant bit (LSB) or digit except that only the two symbols 0 and 1 are available. Hence, after a bit reaches 1 in the binary system, an increment resets it to 0 but also causes an increment of the next bit to the left:

- 0000 – the initial state
- 0001 – the rightmost bit starts over, and the next digit is incremented
- 0010, 0011 – the rightmost two bits start once again, and the next bit is incremented
- 0100, 0101, 0110, 0111 – the rightmost three bits start over, and the next bit is incremented

In the binary number system, each bit represents an increasing power of 2. For example, with the rightmost bit representing 20, the next representing 21, 22, and then so on. The value of a binary number is the sum of the powers of 2 that is represented by each bit.

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