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P Block Elements

These elements include certain metals, all nonmetals, and metalloids. S-block and p-block elements are joined to form standard or representative elements (except zero group elements). Each periodic table period closes with a noble gas with a closed shell ns2np6 structure from the zero group (18th group). There are two chemically relevant non-metal groups preceding the noble gas group. Halogens (group 17) and chalcogens are involved (group 18).

p-Block Elements

These elements are found in groups 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 and have the last electron occupying p-orbitals (except helium). P-block elements are categorized into six groups because p-block orbitals can only carry a maximum of six electrons.


  • The final electron in the p block elements’ atoms enters the p-subshell of the outermost shell.
  • These items eventually fill up the np subshell. The valence shell configurations range from ns2 np1 through ns2 np6.
  • ns2np1-6 is the general electrical configuration of p-block components (Except Helium).
  • The number of electrons in the penultimate shell of a p-block element is either 2 or 8 or 18.
  • Except for f and inert gases, the oxidation states of p-block elements range from +n to (n- 8), where n is the number of electrons in the outermost shell.


  • Boron compound borax is used in the glass and pottery industries.
  • Boron is also employed in the soap and detergent industries.
  • Boron is used in both airplanes and bulletproof vests.
  • Boron is used to increasing steel hardness.
  • Aluminum is utilized in kitchenware, coils, wires, iron and zinc protection, and wrapping foils. It’s also employed as a reducing agent.
  • Germanium, arsenic, silicon, and gallium are employed as semiconductors.
  • Alum is used to purify water and as an antiseptic.
  • Iodine is present in iodine tincture.
  • Chlorine is present in disinfectants.
  • Carbon and its derivatives are employed in a wide range of applications.

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