These elements include certain metals, all nonmetals, and metalloids. S-block and p-block elements are joined to form standard or representative elements (except zero group elements). Each periodic table period closes with a noble gas with a closed shell ns2np6 structure from the zero group (18th group). There are two chemically relevant non-metal groups preceding the noble gas group. Halogens (group 17) and chalcogens are involved (group 18).
These elements are found in groups 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 and have the last electron occupying p-orbitals (except helium). P-block elements are categorized into six groups because p-block orbitals can only carry a maximum of six electrons.
- The final electron in the p block elements’ atoms enters the p-subshell of the outermost shell.
- These items eventually fill up the np subshell. The valence shell configurations range from ns2 np1 through ns2 np6.
- ns2np1-6 is the general electrical configuration of p-block components (Except Helium).
- The number of electrons in the penultimate shell of a p-block element is either 2 or 8 or 18.
- Except for f and inert gases, the oxidation states of p-block elements range from +n to (n- 8), where n is the number of electrons in the outermost shell.
- Boron compound borax is used in the glass and pottery industries.
- Boron is also employed in the soap and detergent industries.
- Boron is used in both airplanes and bulletproof vests.
- Boron is used to increasing steel hardness.
- Aluminum is utilized in kitchenware, coils, wires, iron and zinc protection, and wrapping foils. It’s also employed as a reducing agent.
- Germanium, arsenic, silicon, and gallium are employed as semiconductors.
- Alum is used to purify water and as an antiseptic.
- Iodine is present in iodine tincture.
- Chlorine is present in disinfectants.
- Carbon and its derivatives are employed in a wide range of applications.
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