Until the end of the nineteenth century, the educational world was dominated by religiously motivated moral, disciplinary, and informational goals. All of these educational goals were rejected by John Dewey. He discusses the “John Dewey Philosophy of Education” in light of the world’s rapid social and economic developments, notably in America.
Dewey does not believe in education’s ultimate goal. He offers no defined and final educational plan. He always speaks of immediate or near-term goals. To him, education is an experience constantly altering in response to the changing patterns of life. The educational process is a never-ending process of adjustment. The individual must constantly adjust and re-adjust himself to the environment.
Dewey’s Ideal School
According to Dewey, school is a necessary social and psychological organization. The school is not a place where dry knowledge is taught. According to Dewey, a school is a place where children learn via their own experiences. Considering education as a psychological necessity, he desired the perfect school to be similar to the ideal home.
In an ideal family, the parent knows what is best for his child and meets his requirements. Real-life home and community experiences must be provided. Instead of a ‘listening school,’ a ‘doing school’ must be established in which morality and occupational skills are gained via living and acting in real-life situations.
Under John Dewey philosophy of education, he provided a clear framework for primary education in three phases:
(a) The time of play, from 4 to 8
(c) From 8 to 12 years old, a period of spontaneous attention
(c) Period of thoughtful attention from 12 onwards.
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