The Guilford Theory of Intelligence, also known as the structure of intellect theory (SOI) model, is a theory on multiple intelligence. The Guilford Theory of Intelligence is a model where intelligence is not considered a global monolithic attribute but rather a combination of several abilities that are relatively independent of each other. Guilford applied the method of factor analysis to learn about these mental abilities. He firmly rejected Charles Spearman’s view that intelligence can be categorized by the use of a single numerical parameter as well as broad factor groups like in the case of the primary abilities as explained by Thurstone.
The first version of the Guilford Theory of Intelligence was presented in 1956. It explains intelligence as a systematic collection of functions or abilities that are used for processing different types of information in different ways. This model included 4 kinds of Mental content dimensions, 5 kinds of operation dimensions, and 6 types of products dimension. However, Guilford later modified it and divided the factors into visual and auditory factors. Guilford is said to have paved the way for advanced research into intelligence and left a significant mark in the same.
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